However, that transition only brought with it a Latest Mailing Database medium-term mirage: the apparent reduction in global uncertainty was based on excessive optimism by Western elites about the opportunities of globalization. The era of entropy in which nation-states are now immersed is a pessimistic version, in normative and philosophical terms, of the Latest Mailing Database famous theory of «complex interdependence»1. The exponential growth of transnational contact channels is not an exclusive source of benefits, but also multiplies uncertainties Latest Mailing Database and cuts across global risks.
The most important in terms of impact are Latest Mailing Database environmental: global warming, climate action failures, natural disasters, biodiversity Latest Mailing Database loss, human-caused environmental disasters, and water crises. To these are added the geoeconomic, geopolitical, socio-spatial and geotechnological ones: fraud or data theft, cyber attacks, global governance failures, food Latest Mailing Database crises, urban planning failures, weapons of mass Latest Mailing Database destruction, forced migration, illicit financial flows, financial crises and pandemicstwo.
Before, the notion of risk was Latest Mailing Database supposed to be an attempt to regulate the future; today, the challenges are of the present and of the short term, which shortens the time for international cooperation and the design of public policies aimed at Latest Mailing Database mitigating them. The current scenario resembles a contest between two polarities: the world of interactions between states, or Westphalia, on one side; and the Latest Mailing Database world of globalization and transnational interactions beyond the States, or Globalization, of the other.